Atypical presentation of Cryoglobulinemia: Case study

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Cairo Hospital of Dermatology and Venereology (Al Haud Al Marsoud), Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo, Egypt

2 Cairo Hospital of Dermatology and Venereology (Al Haud Al Marsoud), Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

Cryoglobulinemia is the presence of immunoglobulins (Igs) that precipitate at low temperatures in serum. cryoglobulinemia is which classified by the components of the cryoprecipitate into 3 types; type I, isolated monoclonal immunoglobulins; type II, a monoclonal component, usually immunoglobulin M (IgM), possessing activity toward polyclonal immunoglobulins, usually immunoglobulin G (IgG); and type III, polyclonal immunoglobulins of more than one isotype. This classification provided a framework for clinical correlations. The vast number of varied conditions associated with the production of cryoglobulins can be roughly classified into three categories: chronic hepatitis C and other infections, autoimmune diseases, and B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Purpura is the main clinical manifestation of cryoglobulinemia being reported in 55% to 100% of patients. The incidence is higher in patients with type II and III cryoglobulinemia rather in those with type I. In this work a 74-year-old female patient complained from atypical presentation of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis confirmed with histopathology, that led to the discovery of relapsing non-Hodgkin lymphoma in apparently healthy individual.

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